Iraq Foreign Nationals and the Death Penalty Death Penalty Overview Iraq is one of the eight out of eleven League of Arab States to execute people. Executions are carried out either by shooting or hanging. Iraq retains the death penalty for ‘ordinary crimes’, despite international law stating that the use of the death penalty should be restricted to the most serious crimes. Furthermore, death sentences are often imposed in Iraq following proceedings that do not meet international fair trial standards (Amnesty International 2022). Iraq voted against the most recent UNGA resolution on a moratorium of the death penalty in 2022. At least 7,900 individuals are thought to be on death row in Iraq, the majority of whom are for terrorism-related offences, under the Iraqi Anti-Terrorism Law no.13. This law is cause for serious human rights concerns, primarily due to its vague and overly-broad de nition of ‘terrorism’. Between 2021 and 2022, recorded executions in Iraq fell by more than 35% (17 individuals to 11) and death sentences fell by 55% (91 to 41). Over the last decade, the greatest increase in death sentences was between 2017 and 2018, quadrupling from at least 65 in 2017 to at least 271 in 2018. The highest number of executions in the last decade were recorded in 2013, when at least 169 individuals were thought to have been executed (Amnesty International 2022). fi Since October 2020, a wave of executions have been carried out at Nasiriyah Central Prison (commonly known as al-Hoot prison). 21 individuals were executed in October 2020, and a further 21 on 16 November; part of a plan to execute all prisoners on death row.

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